Facts and Figures: Peace and Security

At the peace table

  • From 1990-2000, 11 per cent of peace agreements (17 out of 664) included at least one reference to women. Out of the 504 agreements signed since the adoption of resolution 1325, only 138 (27 per cent) included references to women [1].
  • In 2015, 7 out of 10 peace agreements signed included gender specific provisions [2].
  • Between 1992 and 2011, four per cent of signatories to peace agreements and less than 10 per cent of negotiators at peace tables were women [3].
  • When women are included in peace processes there is a 20 per cent increase in the probability of an agreement lasting at least 2 years, and a 35 per cent increase in the probability of an agreement lasting at least 15 years [4].
  • In peace processes between 1992 and 2011 women made up only:
    • 2 per cent of Chief Mediators
    • 4 per cent of Witnesses and Signatories
    • 9 per cent of Negotiators [5].
  • In the recent Colombian peace negotiations, however, women participated as gender advisors and experts, negotiators, and in delegations of women affected by conflict, making up one-third of peace table participants and over 60 per cent of victims and experts [6].Negotiators from both sides met with delegations of women affected by conflict. The Colombia process had a gender subcommittee—the first of its kind—and the final agreement has a gender chapter, also the first of its kind, and gender is mainstreamed across all areas of the agreement [7].
Where are the women in women peace and security?

Women’s leadership:

  • In conflict-affected countries, women’s share of seats in parliament is four percentage points below the global average of 22.7 per cent, and women occupy only 14.8 per cent of ministerial positions [8].
  • By 2016, in conflict and post-conflict countries with legislated electoral quotas, women make up 22 per cent of parliamentarians. However, in conflict and post-conflict countries without legislated electoral quotas, women make up only 11.2 per cent of parliamentarians [9].
  • The percentage of UN field missions headed by women has fluctuated between 15 and 25 per cent since 2011 [10].
  • In the summer of 2014, six women ambassadors served on the UN Security Council, putting women’s representation at an unprecedented 40 per cent [11].
  • Only 13 per cent of stories in the news media on peace- and security-related themes included women as the subject, and women were central to the story in only six per cent of the cases. Only four per cent of the stories portrayed women as leaders in conflict and post-conflict countries, and only two per cent highlighted gender equality issues [12].
quotas in women, peace and security.

Health, education and livelihood:

  • Approximately half of children of primary school age who are not in school live in conflict-affected areas. Girls, whose adjusted net enrolment rate in primary education is only 77.5 per cent in conflict and post-conflict countries, are particularly affected [13].
    See related infographic ».
  • In conflict and post-conflict countries, maternal mortality is on average 2.5 times higher [14]. More than half of the world’s maternal deaths occur in conflict-affected and fragile states, with the 10 worst-performing countries on maternal mortality all either conflict or post-conflict countries [15].
  • Only 11.1 per cent of landholders in conflict and post-conflict countries are women, compared to 19 per cent globally [16].
  • Between 9.5 per cent and 13 per cent of global military spending could eliminate extreme poverty and hunger by 2030, if funds were channelled to improve agriculture and rural infrastructure in poor communities [17].
women, peace and security spending.

Justice and security:

  • Women are 3 per cent of UN military peacekeepers [18].
  • According to data collected between 2006 and 2010, female voters are four times as likely as men to be targeted for intimidation in elections in fragile and transitional states [19].
  • Twenty-seven countries have legal provisions that prevent mothers from conferring their nationality to children on an equal basis as fathers, which can lead to children being stateless [20].
  • Forty per cent of convictions of individuals at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia include sexual violence charges [21].
  • Reports from the Democratic Republic of the Congo on the extent of conflict-related sexual violence range from 18 per cent to 40 per cent among women and girls and between four and 24 per cent among men and boys [22].
  • One in four households of all Syrian refugee families in Egypt, Lebanon, Iraq and Jordan are headed by women [23]. In Mali, more than 50 per cent of displaced families are headed by women [24].
  • Before the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, the average age for marriage for a girl was between 20 and 25 years. In the refugee camps during and after the genocide, the average age for marriage was 15 years [25].
  • Data from 40 countries shows a positive correlation between the proportion of female police and reporting rates of sexual assault [26].

Peacebuilding and recovery:

  • In 2015 alone, the world spent an estimated US $34 billion on UN peacekeeping and humanitarian aid for victims of conflict and refugees [27].
  • In the same year, experts also estimate that the total global cost of violence and conflict around the world was US $13.6 trillion. This is a cost of more than US $1,800 per person on the planet. [28]
  • In the context of early recovery programmes, only 22 per cent of funds from cash contributions were directly disbursed to women in 2013 [29].
  • In 2015, women received 46 per cent of UNDP benefits from temporary employment activities from disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes, which constitutes an 8 per cent increase from 2014 [30].
  • Only one per cent of bilateral official development assistance for security system management reform targeted gender equality as a principal objective in 2014, and only 26 per cent targeted it as a significant objective [31].
  • In 2014, less than one per cent of aid to fragile states and economies targeted gender equality significantly. Only two per cent of aid to fragile states and economies in 2012 and 2013 targeted gender equality as a principal objective, and only USD 130 million out of almost USD 32 billion of total aid went to women’s equality organizations and institutions [32].

Notes

[1] UN Security Council (2015). Report of the Secretary-General on women, peace and security

[2] UN Security Council (2016). Report of the Secretary-General on women, peace and security, p. 5.

[3] UN Women (2012). UN Women Sourcebook on Women, Peace and Security, p. 6, citing Women’s Participation in Peace Negotiations: Connections Between Presence and Influence, p. 2.

[4] Laurel Stone (2015). Study of 156 peace agreements, controlling for other variables, Quantitative Analysis of Women’s participation in Peace Processes in Reimagining Peacemaking: Women’s Roles in Peace Processes, Annex II 

[5] Castillo Diaz and Tordjman (2012). Women’s Participation in Peace Negotiations: Connections between Presence and Influence.

[6] UN Women (2015). Women take the reins to build peace in Colombia, 28 May. Available from http://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2015/5/women-build-peace-in-colombia See also, UN Security Council (2016). Report of the Secretary-General on women, peace and security, p. 2-3.

[7] UN News Centre (2015). UN agency welcomes selection of two female negotiators for Colombia’s peace talks, 29 November. Available from http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=46628#.V9l27_krK70.

[8] Inter-Parliamentary Union (2015). Parline database query; UN Security Council (2016). Report of the Secretary-General on women, peace and security, p. 15. UN Security Council (2015); Report of the Secretary-General on women, peace and security, S/2015/716. p. 10.

[9] UN Security Council (2016). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security,” para. 52.

[10] UN Security Council (2015). Report of the Secretary-General on women, peace and security. p.37 – 38.

[11] UN Security Council (2014). Report of the Secretary-General on women, peace and security. p. 10.

[12] Coomaraswamy, Radhika (2015). Preventing Conflict, Transforming Justice, and Securing the Peace: A Global Study on Implementation of Security Council resolution 1325, p.293-294 

[13] UN Security Council (2014). Report of the Secretary-General on women, peace and security, p. 26.

[14] UN Women calculations based on data from Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-Agency Group estimates and birth estimates of the Population Division’s World Population Prospects, cited in the SG report, S/2014/693. p. 27.

[15] Save the Children (2014). State of the World’s Mothers 2014: Saving Mothers and Children in Humanitarian Crises. p. 12. and Coomaraswamy, Radhika (2015). Preventing Conflict, Transforming Justice, and Securing the Peace: A Global Study on Implementation of Security Council resolution 1325. p.76.

[16] UN Security Council (2016). Report of the Secretary-General on women, peace and security, p. 13-14.

[17] This data is calculated annually by UN Women for the report of the Secretary-General on Women and Peace and Security. See also, “Secretary-General’s Report on Women and Peace and Security (2016),” para. 52; Economic and Social Development Department; FAO; WFP; IFAD (2015). Achieving Zero Hunger: The Critical Role of Investments in Social Protection and Agriculture

[18] UN Security Council (2016). Report of the Secretary-General on women, peace and security, p. 7.

[19] IFES (2011).  Breaking the Mold: Understanding Gender and Electoral Violence, p. 16. 

[20] UNHCR (2013). Annual Survey on Gender Discrimination in Nationality Laws, p. 1.

[21] United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, Accessed on October 2014 from http://www.icty.org/sid/10586

[22] UNICEF (2014). Hidden in Plain Sight: A statistical analysis of violence against children, p. 68.

[23] UNHCR (2014). Woman Alone: The fight for survival by Syria’s refugee women, p. 8.

[24] Norwegian Refugee Council (2014). Global Overview 2014: People internally displaced by conflict and violence, p. 30.

[25] Women’s Refugee Commission (2014). Strong Girls, Powerful Women: Program Planning and Design for Adolescent Girls in Humanitarian Settings, p. 4.

[26] UN Women (2012). Progress of the Worlds Women: In Pursuit of Justice, p. 59.

[27] UN Peacebuilding Fund Pledging Conference, 21 September 2016, New York.

[28] Ibid; See also UN Secretary-General’s remarks at the Peacebuilding Fund Pledging Conference (2016). Available from http://www.un.org/press/en/2016/sgsm18113.doc.htm

[29] UN Security Council (2014). Report of the Secretary-General on women, peace and security, p. 23.

[30] UN Security Council (2016). Report of the Secretary-General on women, peace and security, p. 14.

[31] Analysis of bilateral sector allocable official development assistance by OECD/DAC donors, cited in Coomaraswamy, Radhika (2015). Preventing Conflict, Transforming Justice, and Securing the Peace: A Global Study on Implementation of Security Council resolution 1325. p. 376

[32] Ibid. See also, UN Security Council (2016). Report of the Secretary-General on women, peace and security, p. 28.

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