Facts and Figures: Peace and Security

At the peace table:

  • Out of 585 peace agreements from 1990 to 2010, only 92 contained any references to women.[1]
  • In 2013, more than half of all peace agreements signed included references to women, peace and security.[2]
  • From 1992 to 2011, fewer than 4 per cent of signatories to peace agreements and less than 10 per cent of negotiators at peace tables were women.[3]

Women’s leadership:

  • In conflict-affected countries, women’s share of seats in parliament is four points below the global average of 22 per cent and occupy only 13 per cent of ministerial positions.[4]
  • Women head only 19 per cent of all UN field missions.[5]
  • In the summer of 2014, six women ambassadors served on the UN Security Council, putting women’s representation at an unprecedented 40 per cent.[6]

Health, education, and livelihood:

  • Approximately half of out-of-school children of primary school age live in conflict-affected areas. Girls, whose net enrolment rate in primary education is only 73.4 per cent in conflict and post-conflict countries, are particularly affected.[7]
    See related infographic.
  • Maternal mortality is 60 per cent higher, on average, in conflict and post-conflict countries.[8]
  • Only 9 per cent of landholders in conflict and post-conflict countries are women, compared to 19 per cent globally.[9]

Justice and security:

  • Since 2000, women have made up, on average, 25 per cent of commissioners in truth and reconciliation commissions.[10]
  • 97 per cent of military peacekeepers and 90 per cent of police personnel are men.[11]
  • Female voters are four times as likely as men to be targeted for intimidation in elections in fragile and transitional States.[12]
  • 27 countries retain legal provisions preventing mothers from conferring their nationality to children on an equal basis as fathers, which can lead to children being stateless.[13]
  • 40 per cent of convictions of individuals at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia include sexual violence charges.[14]
  • Reports from the Democratic Republic of the Congo on the extent of conflict-related sexual violence range from 18 per cent to 40 per cent among women and girls and between 4 and 24 per cent among men and boys.[15]
  • One in four households of all Syrian refugee families in Egypt, Lebanon, Iraq and Jordan are headed by women.[16] In Mali, more than 50 per cent of displaced families are headed by women.[17]
  • Before the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, the average age for marriage for a girl was between 20 and 25 years. In the refugee camps during and after the genocide, the mean age for marriage was 15 years.[18]
  • The rate of early marriage among Syrian refugee girls in Jordan is 51 per cent.[19]

Peacebuilding and recovery:

  • In the context of early recovery programmes, only 22 per cent of funds from cash contributions were directly disbursed to women in 2013.[20]
  • In 2013, between 25 and 28 per cent of beneficiaries of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes were women and girls.[21]
  • Only one per cent of spending in security sector reform is allocated to initiatives which consider gender equality a significant objective.[22]
  • In a sample of six post-conflict countries, less than eight per cent of spending was specifically budgeted to empower women or promote gender equality.[23]
Notes

[1] Bell, Christine and C. O’Rourke, 2010, “Peace Agreements or Pieces of Paper? The Impact of UNSC Resolution 1325 on Peace Processes and their Agreements,” International and Comparative Law Quarterly, p. 59.

[2] UN Report of the Secretary-General on women and peace and security, 24 September 2014, S/2014/693. p. 12.

[3] UN Women, 2012, “Women’s Participation in Peace Negotiations: Connections Between Presence and Influence” in UN Women Sourcebook on Women, Peace and Security p. 2-3.

[4] Inter-Parliamentary Union, 2014. Parline database query and UN Report of the Secretary-General on women, peace and security, 24 September 2014, S/2014/693. p. 13.

[5] UN Report of the Secretary-General on women and peace and security, 24 September 2014, S/2014/693. p. 15.

[6] Ibid. p. 11.

[7] Estimates provided by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics 2014 for SG report S/2014/693. p. 25-26.

[8] UN Women calculations based on data from Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-Agency Group estimates and birth estimates of the Population Division’s World Population Prospects. Cited in the SG report, S/2014/693. p. 27.

[9] UN Women calculations based on data from the Food and Agriculture Organization's Gender and Land Rights database, cited in SG report S/2014/693, p. 22.

[10] UN Women, 2012, Tracking Implementation of Resolution 1325, page 19 in UN Women Sourcebook on Women, Peace and Security

[11] UN Women calculations based on individual country figures provided by DPKO, DPA, and DFS in March 2014. Cited in SG report S/2014/693. p. 18.

[12] IFES, 2011, “Breaking the Cycle of Gender Violence” p. 16

[13] UNHCR, Annual Survey on Gender Discrimination in Nationality Laws, 2013

[14] 30 out of 74 convictions, according to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia website, accessed October 2014.

[15] UNICEF, 2014, “Hidden in Plain Sight: A statistical analysis of violence against children” p. 68

[16] UNHCR, 2014, “Woman Alone: The fight for survival by Syria’s refugee women” p. 8

[17] Norwegian Refugee Council, 2014, “Global Overview 2014: People internally displaced by conflict and violence”. p. 30.

[18] Women’s Refugee Commission, 2014, “Strong Girls, Powerful Women: Program Planning and Design for Adolescent Girls in Humanitarian Settings” p. 4

[19] UN Women, 2013, “Gender-Based Violence and Child Protection Among Syrian Refugees in Jordan, with a Focus on Early Marriage” p. 29

[20] Data provided by UNDP’s monitoring strategy tracking disbursements allocated to women beneficiaries in the context of temporary employment and productive livelihood projects. Cited in UN Report of the Secretary-General on women and peace and security, 24 September 2014, S/2014/693. p. 23.

[21] UN Women calculations based on data provided by DPKO and UNDP, cited in SG report S/2014/693. p. 24.

[22] UN Women, UNDP, PBSO, 2014, “Summary of Findings of Seven Point Action Plan Baseline Study” (available upon request).

[23] UN Women, 2012, “What Women Want: Planning and Financing for Gender-Responsive Peacebuilding” in UN Women Sourcebook on Women, Peace and Security. p. 5.

[Page updated October 2014.]