Facts and figures: Women, peace, and security

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Disarmament and military spending

  • Global military expenditure reached nearly USD 2 trillion in 2020, an increase of 2.6 per cent from 2019. Military spending reached a global average of 2.4 per cent of GDP, the largest share since 2009. [1]
  • Historically, conflict-affected countries spend two to three times more on defence than on health, whereas in more stable countries [2], the opposite is true.
  • In 2017, military expenditure was the largest contributor (37 per cent) to the global economic cost of violence, estimated at USD 14.7 trillion [3].
  • It is estimated that the cost of extending basic water, sanitation and hygiene to unserved populations, achieving quality universal primary and early secondary education for all, and eliminating extreme poverty and hunger would cost only 2 per cent, 6 per cent, and 13 per cent of global military spending, respectively [4].
  • According to a recent study analyzing data from 153 countries from 1990 to 2019, countries with lower income levels and lower levels of democracy see a strong association between militarization and gender inequality [5].
  • Research shows that countries where there are more women in legislative and executive branches of government have less defence spending and more social spending [6].
  • It is estimated that the direct and indirect annual cost of providing modern contraceptive services to meet the needs of all the women and girls in developing countries would cost USD 12 billion, or just 0.6 per cent of global military spending in 2020 [7].
  • Only 39 per cent of national action plans on women, peace and security adopted by 2020 had any mention of weapons-related issues [8].
  • Only four out of the ten Security Council resolutions on women, peace and security address weapons and military expenditures [2106 (2013)2122 (2013)2242 (2015)2467 (2019)] and only through a focus on small arms and light weapons and the Arms Trade Treaty [9].
  • In annual debates at the Security Council resolutions on women, peace and security, fewer than 15 per cent of speakers representing Member States or regional blocs refer to arms control or disarmament [10].
  • The low representation of women in multilateral forums dealing with arms control and non-proliferation has been extensively documented, averaging between 20 and 35 per cent [11].
  • Data from ILO show that countries that spend relatively more on military are significantly less likely to enact social protection measures targeting children and family or maternity/parental functions [12].
  • Research found that COVID-19-responsive policy measures targeting violence against women and unpaid care were less likely to be enacted in conflict-affected countries and those that spend relatively more on their militaries [13].

The COVID-19 pandemic and women, peace and security

  • The United Nations has been warning about the shadow pandemic of intimate partner violence since the start of worldwide COVID-19 lockdowns, and the increase in domestic violence against women and girls has been staggering.Many countries registered a sharp and immediate surge in cases and calls for service, with increases ranging from 20 per cent to 100 per cent in most cases. In a survey of 850 refugee and internally displaced women across 15 countries in Africa, 73 per cent reported an increase in domestic violence [14].
  • Among over 3,100 policy measures in response to the social and economic consequences of COVID-19 adopted across 219 countries and territories, only 42 per cent are gender-sensitive. A similar proportion is found in conflict-affected countries [15].
  • Among 1,700 COVID-19 response policy measures related to social protection or the labour market, only 23 per cent either targeted women’s economic security or provided support for unpaid care [16].
  • Women made up only 25 per cent of members among COVID-19 task forces in 36 conflict and post-conflict countries where data is available [17].
  • In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, a number of countries have initiated social protection measures, including unemployment, income protection, and social grants for families and children. Research found that on average, conflict-affected countries enacted half as many social protection measures in 2020 (4 policies on average) as countries that are not classified as conflict-affected (which enacted 8 such policies on average) [18].

Economic recovery and access to resources

  • Research shows that in fragile and conflict-affected countries, only 44 per cent of women are likely to be in paid work, compared to 66 per cent of men in those countries [19].
  • In post-conflict countries, close to four in five women are in paid work in agriculture, with low wages and few legal protections. Mandatory social distancing measures during the COVID-19 pandemic made it difficult or impossible for women to sell their products in the market. Women took on heavier domestic burdens and caregiving duties, and income losses impaired their ability to buy seeds and other materials for the next planting season [20].
  • In response to COVID-19, only three fragile countries adopted measures to support unpaid care work. There is a continued expectation that women’s care work is the all-catching safety net that can absorb the costs of wars, disasters, or pandemics in detriment of women’s own economic aspirations or participation in public life [21].

Women’s meaningful participation in peace processes

  • Between 1992 and 2019, women were, on average, just 13 per cent of negotiators, 6 per cent of mediators, and 6 per cent of signatories in major peace processes worldwide. About seven out of every ten peace processes did not include any women mediators or women signatories [22].
  • Among the four United Nations-led or co-led peace processes in 2020, two were led by women mediators, and all these four processes consulted with civil society and were provided with gender expertise [23].
  • In 2020, women represented 23 per cent of conflict parties delegations in UN supported peace processes – a share that would have been even lower without persistent measures by the UN.
  • The percentage of peace agreements with gender provisions was 28.6 per cent in 2020, which remains well below the peak of 37.1 per cent in 2015 [24].
  • Research shows that peace agreements mentioning women, girls or gender often arise at the comprehensive agreement stage. None of the ceasefire agreements reached between 2018-2020 included gender provisions or the prohibition of sexual violence [25].

Women’s leadership and political participation

  • Worldwide, only 25.5 per cent of all national parliamentarians are women. In conflict and post-conflict countries, women’s representation in parliament is even lower at just 18.9 per cent in 2020 [26].
  • In 2020, women made up 36.3 per cent of local-level elected positions globally, and 25.9 per cent in conflict-affected countries [27].
  • In 2020, women served as Heads of State or Government in only 22 countries worldwide.[28]
  • Women’s participation in public administration in fragile and conflict-affected countries averages 23 per cent, less than half of the average in all other countries [29].
  • Women’s parliamentary representation in conflict and post-conflict countries with legislated quotas is twice the amount of those without such quotas: 23.3 per cent with quotas compared to 11.6 per cent without in 2020 [30].
  • In 2020, the representation of women in local government in conflict and post-conflict countries with legislated gender quotas was 27.5 per cent, compared to 11 per cent of those where quotas are not in use [31].
  • As of January 2021, women account for only 21.9 per cent of ministers globally, and just 19.2 per cent in conflict and post-conflict countries [32].

Gender-responsive peacekeeping and peace operations

  • As of December 2020, the United Nations exceeded the 2020 targets set in the Uniformed Gender Parity Strategy but lagged behind for military troops. Women represented:
    • 18.7 per cent of military observers and staff officers against the 17 per cent target
    • 29.1 per cent of individual police officers against the 22 per cent target
    • 13.7 per cent of formed police units against the 10 per cent target
    • 34 per cent of justice and corrections government-provided personnel against the 27 per cent target, and
    • 5.2 per cent of military troops against the 6.5 per cent target [33].
  • As of 31 December 2020, three women served in the most senior military positions in the field and four women led United Nations police components, a record number of women serving in such senior uniformed positions in the organization [34].
  • Based on the pace of change over the past ten years, it may still take 30 years to reach gender parity for military troops, 12 years for formed police units, 8 years for individual police officers, and 7 years for military observers and staff officers, keeping all other factors [35].
  • In resolutions renewing peacekeeping mandates, the Security Council added gender considerations to the request for support to the reform of security and defence forces in only 4 out of 11 country-specific situations [36].
  • In 2020, 17 per cent of total allegations of sexual exploitation and abuse received across the United Nations system involved personnel in peace operations and special political missions. 70 per cent of the 66 reported allegations were related to MINUSCA and MONUSCO, a proportion similar to 2018 and 2019 [37].

Leadership and gender expertise in UN field operations

  • As of February 2021, women comprised 48 per cent of all Heads and Deputy Heads of Mission, a substantial increase from 20 per cent in 2015 [38].
  • Of the current 13 peacekeeping missions, eight have gender units with a total of 52 gender advisors and officers, but only four of these are at senior level (P5) [39]. There were 15 gender advisers in the United Nations Police, and 4 in military components.
  • As of 31 December 2020, across 19 special political missions, there were 146 staff engaged in providing gender expertise and support. One quarter of special political missions had a senior gender advisor (P5) [40].

Promoting and protecting the human rights of women and girls

  • The United Nations reported 2,500 verified cases of conflict-related sexual violence committed, mostly against women and girls, across 18 countries in 2020 [41].
  • In 2020, OHCHR verified 35 cases of killings of women human rights defenders, journalists and trade unionists in seven conflict-affected countries with data, surpassing the reported numbers for 2019 and 2018 [42].
  • In 2020, nearly 100 million people faced food insecurity, an astounding increase from 77 million in 2019 [43].
  • Among trafficking victims globally, five out of every ten are adult women and two out of every ten are girls [44].
  • Progress for women's participation among the leadership of humanitarian response in refugee and internal displacement contexts has slowed. According to UNHCR, the number of situations reporting either increased or stable levels of female leadership dropped from over half (56 per cent) in 2019 to under half (48 per cent) in 2020 [45].
  • The Inter-Agency Humanitarian Evaluation on Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women identified the lack of representation of women-led organizations as a gap in humanitarian decision-making. However, there has been notable progress since 2017, including an uptick in consultations with women and the participation of local women-led organizations in the design and planning of the Humanitarian Programme Cycle [46].

Financing the women, peace, and security agenda

  • In 2020, the Peacebuilding Fund approved investments of USD 173 million in 41 contexts and allocated 40 per cent towards gender equality and women’s empowerment, the same share as the previous two years [47].
  • In 2020, the Peacebuilding Fund allocated more than USD 19 million to the protection of women and youth peacebuilders and human rights defenders. Almost half of that amount was dedicated to supporting LGBTIQ rights defenders through the PBF’s Gender and Youth Promotion Initiative [48].
  • Since its launch in 2016, the Women’s Peace and Humanitarian Fund (WPHF) financed and supported the capacity of over 420 local and grassroots civil society organizations led by and working alongside women in 26 conflict and crisis-affected countries around the world [49].
  • Bilateral aid to fragile and conflict-affected contexts has continued to increase, reaching USD 47.2 billion in 2019. Out of this aid, USD 20.6 billion (44 per cent) was committed to support gender equality and women’s empowerment [50].
  • In 2019, 5.6 per cent (USD 2.7 billion) of bilateral aid was dedicated to programmes with gender equality as a principal objective, maintaining a similar proportion since 2010 [51].
  • Bilateral aid supporting feminist, women-led and women’s rights organizations and movements in fragile or conflict-affected countries remains low, at only 0.4 per cent (USD 179 million) in 2019, and stagnant since 2010. Only USD 18 million were received by local women’s rights organizations based in fragile or conflict-affected countries, and groups working at intersecting forms of marginalization are funded even less [52].
  • In 2020, of the USD 847.1 million allocated by the Central Emergency Fund (CERF) to deliver humanitarian assistance, USD 147.8 million (17.5 per cent) was dedicated to projects likely to contribute to gender equality, including across age groups. Another USD 349.4 million (41.4 per cent) was provided to projects likely to contribute to gender equality, but without attention to age groups [53].
  • In 2020, the Country Based Pooled Funds (CBPFs) allocated USD 586 million (64.5 per cent) to projects likely to contribute to gender equality, including across age groups, USD 230 million to projects likely to contribute to gender equality, but without attention to age groups, including an estimated USD 34 million allocated to gender-based violence programming [54].
  • 73 per cent of the USD 30.8 million allocated by the second call for the UN Secretary-General’s COVID-19 Response and Recovery Trust Fund contributed to gender equality [55].
  • Some UN entities have increased their overall spending on gender equality. In 2020, UNDP allocated USD 2.84 billion (63 per cent of total annual expenditure) to programmes or projects contributing to gender equality, within which USD 316 million (7 per cent of total annual expenditure) was dedicated to promoting gender equality and the empowerment of women as the principal objective. UNICEF allocated USD 3.05 billion (56 per cent of total annual expenditure) to programmes or projects contributing to gender equality, with USD 924 million (17 per cent of total annual expenditure) promoting gender equality as a principal objective [56].
  • DPPA has committed to devoting at least 17 per cent of the annual Multi-Year Appeal budget towards initiatives aimed at women’s empowerment and advancing the crucial role of women in conflict prevention, and it also established a new USD 3 million window for women, peace and security [57].
  • In 2020, UN-Women’s toUSD 105.52 million in 77 countries, up from 65 countries in 2019 [58].

National and regional strategies for advancing women’s peace and security

  • As of August 2021, 98 countries and territories (50 per cent of United Nations Member States) had adopted dedicated national action plans (NAPs) on women and peace and security, and 12 regional organizations had regional strategies or plans in place. 86 per cent of NAPs have monitoring indicators to track progress [59].
  • The Women, Peace and Security and Humanitarian Action (WPS-HA) Compact was launched at the Paris Generation Equality Forum on 2 July 2021. As of October 2021, 153 signatories, including Member States, regional organizations, United Nations entities, the private sector, civil society and academia, had endorsed the Compact Preamble and Framework Actions by investing in at least one of the proposed actions [60].
  • Since its foundation in 2016, theWomen and Peace and Security Focal Points Network has continued to guide and advocate for accelerated implementation of the women, peace and security agenda among Member States and regional organizations. The network, currently chaired by Canada and Uruguay, now includes 89 members [61].
  • Since Security Council resolution 2242 (2015) called for the integration of the women, peace and security agenda in efforts to counter violent extremism and terrorism, there has been a significant increase in gender-related recommendations to Member States by the Counterterrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED) [62].

Security Council’s work on women, peace and security

  • Since 2000, the Security Council has adopted a total of ten dedicated resolutions on women, peace and security: resolutions 1325 (2000)1820 (2008), 1888 (2009)1889 (2009)1960 (2010)2106 (2013)2122 (2013)2242 (2015)2467 (2019), and 2493 (2019) [63].
  • In 2020, the percentage of the Security Council resolutions with references to women, peace and security dropped from 67 to 61.4 per cent, which can be attributed to a relatively high number of technical rollovers and short resolutions throughout the year. The percentage of presidential statements with references to women, peace and security increased from 40 per cent in 2019 to 77 per cent in 2020 [64].
  • The percentage of women briefers from civil society decreased in the first half of 2020, dropping by 40 per cent compared to the first half of 2019, and totaled 28 at the year’s end, split evenly between thematic meetings and country-specific meetings [65] .
  • The periodic reports submitted to the Security Council by peacekeeping and special political missions integrate women, peace and security issues: all 33 reports (100 per cent) prepared by DPO contained gender analysis or sex-disaggregated data; the same applies to 41 of 42 reports (98 per cent) prepared by DPPA, and 88 per cent also included recommendations on women, peace and security, compared with 63 per cent in 2017 [66].
  • Since 2007, the Security Council has held several debates on climate security matters. The adverse effects of climate change on stability have been recognized by the Security Council in resolutions and presidential statements in 11 different contexts, as well as in resolution 2242 (2015) on women, peace and security [67].

Notes

[1] https://sipri.org/media/press-release/2021/world-military-spending-rises-almost-2-trillion-2020

[2] Ruth Carlitz, “Comparing Military and Human Security Spending”, 2021 (forthcoming).

[3] Institute for Economics & Peace, "The Economic Value of Peace 2018: Measuring the Global Economic Impact of Violence and Conflict”, Sydney, October 2018. Available from: http://visionofhumanity.org/reports

[4] United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs, 2019 Disarmament Yearbook. Available at https://yearbook.unoda.org/2019/.

[5] Adem Elveren, "Evidence on the Impact of Militarization on Gender Inequality: Preliminary Findings.” Research commissioned by UN-Women to be published in 2021.

[6] Michelle Benson & Ismene Gizelis, “Militarization and Women’s Empowerment in Post-Conflict Societies”, (forthcoming). Data came from 153 countries from 1990 to 2019.

[7] Guttmacher Institute, “Adding It Up: Investing in Contraception and Maternal and Newborn Health”, 2017. New York: Guttmacher Institute

[8] Most mentions refer to small arms and light weapons, followed by mines, cluster munitions, and explosive remnants of war. See UNIDIR, “Connecting the Dots: Arms Control, Disarmament, and the Women, Peace and Security Agenda”, 2020.

[9] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. xx. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[10] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 13. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[11] UNIDIR, “Still Behind the Curve”, 2019.

[12] Ruth Carlitz, “Comparing Military and Human Security Spending”, 2021 (forthcoming).

[13] Ruth Carlitz, “Comparing Military and Human Security Spending”, 2021 (forthcoming).

[14] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 38. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[15] UNDP and UN Women, COVID-19 Global Gender Response Tracker, available at https://data.undp.org/gendertracker/

[16] UNDP and UN Women, COVID-19 Global Gender Response Tracker, available at https://data.undp.org/gendertracker/

[17] Based on calculations from UNDP and UN-Women COVID-19 Global Gender Response Tracker.

[18] Ruth Carlitz, “Comparing Military and Human Security Spending”, 2021 (forthcoming). Data come from the International Labour Organization (ILO).

[19] Yvonne Quek, "Women’s Work Amid Fragility and Conflict: Key Patterns and Constraints”, 2019, Georgetown Institute for Women Peace and Security.

[20] GIWPS and Permanent Mission of the UAE to the UN, “Advancing Women’s Participation in Post-Conflict Reconstruction”, 2020.

[21] UNDP and UN Women, COVID-19 Global Gender Response Tracker, available at https://data.undp.org/gendertracker/

[22] United Nations Security Council (2020). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 15. Data come from the Council on Foreign Relations, Women’s participation in peace processes.

[23] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 19. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[24] This includes both UN (co) led and non-UN (co) led peace agreements. Data come from PA-X Peace Agreements Database (2021) Version 5. Political Settlements Research Programme, University of Edinburgh (www.peaceagreements.org), accessed June 2021

[25] Data come from PA-X Peace Agreements Database (2021) Version 5. Political Settlements Research Programme, University of Edinburgh (www.peaceagreements.org), accessed June 2021. PA-X Peace Agreements Database has identified seven main stages of the process that agreements may be part of: pre-negotiation/process; substantive-comprehensive; substantivepartial; implementation/renegotiation; renewal; ceasefire/related; and other. For more analysis see: Robert Forster& Christine Bell (2019). Gender Mainstreaming in Ceasefires: Comparative Data and Examples (PA-X Report, Spotlight Series). Edinburgh: Global Justice Academy, University of Edinburgh.

[26] UN Women’s calculation based on data from Inter-Parliamentary Union, Monthly ranking of women in national parliaments as at 1 January 2021. Available at https://data.ipu.org/women-ranking?month=1&year=2021

[27] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 51. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[28] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 51. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[29] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 51. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[30] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 53. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[31] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 53. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[32] Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) and UN Women, Map of Women in Politics, 2021

[33] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 33. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[34] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 34. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[35] See https://elsiefund.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/210428_PR-EIF-event-final_English.pdf

[36] UNSMIL, MONUSCO, MINUSMA, MINUSCA. See United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 29

[37] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 32. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[38] Data come from UN Departments of Political and Peacebuilding Affairs, and Peace Operations.

[39] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 87. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[40] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 87. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[41] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 37. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[42] Data from OHCHR, in cooperation with UNESCO and ILO.

[43] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 43. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[44] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 44. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[45] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 42. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[46] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 42. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[47] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 95. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[48] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 50. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[49] For more information see: https://wphfund.org/ (data from October 2021)

[50] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 91. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[51] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 91. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[52] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 91. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[53] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 96. Also see the IASC Gender with Age Marker https://www.iascgenderwithagemarker.com/en/home/

[54] Data come from the Country Based Pooled Funds (https://cbpf.data.unocha.org/#gam_heading). Also see the IASC Gender with Age Marker https://www.iascgenderwithagemarker.com/en/home/

[55] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 94. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[56] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 93. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[57] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 93. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[58] Data come from OECD Creditor Reporting System. United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 93. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[59] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 80. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[60] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 79. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[61] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 81. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[62] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 69. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[63] See https://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/peace-and-security/global-norms-and-standards

[64] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 101. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[65] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 102. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[66] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 106. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

[67] United Nations Security Council (2021). Report of the Secretary-General on women peace and security (S/2021/827), para. 73. Available at https://undocs.org/S/2021/827

(Last updated October 2021.)

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